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A Guide to Iceland's Diverse Wildlife and Birdwatching

Iceland's unique location, situated at the junction of the Arctic and the North Atlantic Ocean, has given rise to a diverse and fascinating array of wildlife. The island's pristine natural habitats, rugged landscapes, and rich birdlife make it an ideal destination for wildlife enthusiasts and birdwatchers alike. In this guide, we will delve into Iceland's diverse wildlife and explore some of the best birdwatching locations across the country.

1. Marine Mammals

Iceland's surrounding waters are home to a variety of marine mammals, including whales, dolphins, and seals. Whale watching is a popular activity in Iceland, with several species regularly sighted, such as:

  • Minke whales

  • Humpback whales

  • Orcas (killer whales)

  • Sperm whales

  • Blue whales

The best time for whale watching is between April and October, with peak season occurring in June and July. Popular whale-watching locations include Reykjavík, Akureyri, and Húsavík.

2. Icelandic Horses

The Icelandic horse is a unique and cherished part of the country's wildlife. These small, sturdy horses are descendants of the horses brought to Iceland by the Viking settlers over a thousand years ago. Known for their friendly temperament and exceptional endurance, Icelandic horses are also famous for their unique gait, the tölt. Horse riding tours are a popular way to experience the Icelandic countryside and interact with these charming animals.

3. Arctic Foxes

The Arctic fox is Iceland's only native land mammal and can be found across the island, particularly in the Westfjords and the central highlands. These small, resourceful creatures have adapted to Iceland's harsh conditions and can change their coat color to blend in with their surroundings, turning white in the winter and brown or gray in the summer. Spotting an Arctic fox in the wild can be challenging but is a rewarding experience for wildlife enthusiasts.

4. Reindeer

Reindeer were introduced to Iceland in the late 18th century and are now found exclusively in the Eastfjords region. These majestic animals are typically spotted grazing in the highlands during the summer months and descending to lower elevations in the winter. Guided tours in the Eastfjords provide the best opportunity to observe reindeer in their natural habitat.

5. Birdwatching in Iceland

Iceland is a paradise for birdwatchers, boasting a diverse range of bird species, including seabirds, waders, and passerines. Some of the most sought-after birds to spot in Iceland include:

  • Puffins: These colorful and charismatic birds can be found along Iceland's coastal cliffs from April to August. Popular puffin-watching locations include the Westman Islands, Látrabjarg cliffs, and Dyrhólaey.

  • Arctic Terns: Known for their incredible migratory journeys, Arctic terns breed in Iceland during the summer months. They can be seen in various locations, such as the Reykjanes Peninsula and near the town of Grindavík.

  • Gyrfalcons: As the world's largest falcon species, the Gyrfalcon is a highly sought-after sighting for birdwatchers. They can be found in Iceland year-round, primarily in remote mountainous areas.

  • Great Skuas: These powerful seabirds breed in Iceland between May and August. They are often spotted in the Vatnsnes Peninsula and around the coastal wetlands of southern Iceland.

6. Top Birdwatching Locations

Iceland offers numerous birdwatching locations, catering to various interests and skill levels. Some of the best locations include:

  • Látrabjarg cliffs: Located in the Westfjords, Látrabjarg is the largest seabird cliff in Europe and is home to millions of birds, including puffins, guillemots, and razorbills.

  • Mývatn: This freshwater lake in northern Iceland is one of the country's most diverse birdwatching destinations, with over 100 bird species recorded in the area. Mývatn is particularly well-known for its duck species, such as the Barrow's goldeneye, tufted duck, and the harlequin duck.

  • Þingvellir National Park: This UNESCO World Heritage site, known for its historical and geological significance, is also a fantastic birdwatching location. Þingvellir is home to several bird species, including the white-throated dipper, redwing, and the common raven.

  • Jökulsárlón Glacier Lagoon: Apart from its stunning icebergs, Jökulsárlón is also a prime birdwatching spot. The lagoon and surrounding area attract various bird species, such as the great skua, Arctic tern, and eider ducks.

7. Tips for Birdwatching in Iceland

When planning your birdwatching trip to Iceland, consider the following tips to ensure a successful and enjoyable experience:

  • Research the best locations and seasons for the bird species you are interested in observing.

  • Pack appropriate clothing and gear, including waterproof and windproof layers, sturdy footwear, binoculars, and a field guide.

  • Observe ethical birdwatching practices, such as keeping a respectful distance from nesting birds, avoiding disturbance to their habitat, and adhering to local guidelines and regulations.

  • Join a guided tour or connect with local birdwatching groups for expert advice and insights into the best birdwatching spots.


Iceland's diverse wildlife and abundant birdlife provide an unparalleled experience for nature enthusiasts and birdwatchers alike. From whale watching and Arctic fox spotting to observing the unique Icelandic horse and the wide array of bird species, there is no shortage of opportunities to encounter the remarkable wildlife of this stunning island.


1. Are there any guided birdwatching tours in Iceland?

Yes, there are several guided birdwatching tours available in Iceland, catering to various interests, skill levels, and locations. These tours are led by knowledgeable guides who can help you spot and identify local bird species and share fascinating information about their behavior and habitat.

2. What is the best time of year for birdwatching in Iceland?

The best time for birdwatching in Iceland is during the summer months, from late April to August, when migratory birds arrive to breed and raise their young. This is also the time when the weather is most favorable for outdoor activities.

3. Are there any birdwatching festivals or events in Iceland?

Iceland does not have a specific birdwatching festival; however, many local and regional events celebrate the country's wildlife, and birdwatching activities may be included as part of these events. Additionally, birdwatching groups and organizations often host outings and activities throughout the year.

4. What types of habitats can be found in Iceland for birdwatching?

Iceland offers a wide range of habitats for birdwatching, including coastal cliffs, wetlands, lava fields, mountains, and lakes. These diverse habitats support a rich variety of bird species and provide unique birdwatching experiences.

5. Do I need a permit for birdwatching in Iceland?

Generally, no permit is required for birdwatching in Iceland. However, it is essential to follow local guidelines and regulations, respect private property, and avoid disturbing nesting birds or their habitats.

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